Education consultants


2015 will become the year for Smart jobs

Dr.T.P.Sethumadhavan

              The year 2015 will witness spectacular growth in education and career in the country. It will bring greater growth opportunities in the context of improved economic climate in the country and overseas. With the emergence of more number of smart cities education and career sector will exhibit smart growth during 2015.
Emerging trends
World Bank study predicts that India’s GDP is likely to expand at 5.6 percent. Forecast for 2015-16 and 2016-17 are 6.4 and 7 percent respectively. McKinsey study predicts that rapid urbanisation is expected to create another 15 metropolitan cities over next decade. By 2025, India’s 69 metropolitan cities, combined with their hinterlands will generate over half its incremental GDP between 2012 and 2025. The report titled India’s Economic Geography in 2025; States, Clusters and Cities, which asserts that granular understanding of India’s market potential and strategies will help companies emerge winners, has identified key economic and business hotspots for the period up to 2025 after analysing 29 Indian States and 7 Union Territories in the Country. Report suggests that Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Uttarakhand will emerge as high performing states which accounts for 52 percent India’s incremental GDP growth from 2012 to 2015. The report estimates that India would be 38 per cent urbanised by 2025 from 31 percent in 2011. Eight States Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, Delhi, Chandigarh, Goa and Puducherry would have urbanisation level over 55 percent by 2025.
International monetary fund suggested that focus on governance and financial inclusion measures taken by Govt of India were positive signs to show that India was back on the growth track. India is giving more emphasis to good governance and e governance programmes. The push towards e-governance will have a positive growth for the Indian IT industry as it brings into play entire gamut of hardware, software products and services. When India attains 8-9 percent growth it may create 1.2 Crore employment opportunities.
As the third largest education system in the world in terms of enrolment and total number of academic institutions, Indian higher education sector is considered by many as sunrise sector for investment. Indian economists predict that Indian intelligence coupled with information technology will be the India tomorrow.IT, Tourism and analytics sector will exhibit robust growth. 
Vision 2030
Federation of Indian chambers of Commerce and industry (FICCI) recently published Higher Education Vision which envisages making India a Global hub in higher education by encouraging leadership, creating international campuses and inspiring Indian Universities to figure in the Global 200 list. This would entail liberalizing policies, providing autonomy, promoting transparency with a focus on outcomes rather than merely on inputs. Globally public funding for higher education is shrinking. India has750 Universities, 47000 college and 30 million students with a gross enrolment rate of 21 percent for the age group of 18-23 years. Private sector accounts for 62 percent intake of students, State Governments by 53 percent and Central Government by 3 percent. Demographically India will soon overtake China as the World’s largest population with an average GDP growth of 8 % per annum.
                 The vision document envisages that by 2030 number of students in the higher education sector will increase from 30 million to 70 million with the GER of 50 percent. It has been forecasted that 23 Universities will reach the top 200 of the World by 2030 and the country will have at least six new Nobel laureates. Share of private sector in education system has grown from 42 percent to 64 percent from 2001 to 2014.Private sector will have 80 % share of the students. 5 l According to a study of 50 Nations carried out by Oxford Economics for British Council, by 2020 the largest higher education Systems are likely to be China (37 million students), India (28 million students), USA (20 million students) and Brazil (9 million students). These four countries are likely to account for 50 % of the total enrolment in higher education in the world. Five lakh overseas students will pursue education in India and two million students pursue education outside India.
                       Former Secretary General of the United Nations Mr. Kofi Annan during his visit to India suggested that India’s formidable scientific firepower should focus on addressing real world concerns, particularly those of the poorest and most vulnerable. He cited climate change as one of the most pressing and complex problems. Climate change is not just an environmental issue; rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns and extreme weather events are an all encompassing threat to our food, water supply, health and food security. Efforts to mitigate the impact of climate change would require a fundamental revision of how we manage our economies, societies and the environment’. It will require us to harness the power of science, innovation and technology. Clean energy sources must be identified, new ways of production developed to reduce waste, and new treatments found to tackle diseases are required.
Prospective areas for 2015
                                              2015 will witness spectacular employment opportunities in analytics, Entrepreneurship, Engineering, IT, cloud computing, biosciences, Pharmaceutical industry, Education, Healthcare, Hospitality, FMCG, Retail industry, Agribusiness and Food processing sectorsCloud computing will continue to generate new jobs worldwide by 2020, and India alone will create over 2 million, predicts International Data Corporation. Pointing out to a strong linkage between cloud, innovation and entrepreneurship, the recent study predicts that most companies look at migration to cloud computing as a way to free up existing resources and work on more innovative projects. In the recent years we have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the world of communication over two million jobs will be generated in the communication, media, manufacturing and banking sectors. Gender wise, girls will continue perform better than boys with an employability percentage of 45% compared with 35%.
            Information Security Analysts, Petroleum Engineers, Event managers, Database Administrators, Software Developers, Applications and Systems Software, Logisticians, Web Developers, Physical Therapists, Financial Analysts, Training and Development Specialists, Market Research Analysts, event managers, food scientists and Marketing Specialists are the fastest growing and highest paying jobs for 2015.
            The Indian software industry continues to add jobs at a fast pace. International Health & Safety Recruitment Specialists, Allen & York predict that there will be further increase in job opportunities for the Health & Safety practitioner within the Risk & Safety, Oil & Gas industry, Chemical and Renewable Energy sectors. Research studies of MAFOI, NASSCOM, ASSOCHAM, CRISIL, Deutsche bank and Hewitt revealed that sectors like energy, infrastructure, project engineering, telecom, ITeS, Financial Services, Insurance, Healthcare, Agribusiness, Manufacturing, Hospitality, Trade, Tourism and transport. Banking, Financial Services, Insurance, Manufacturing and Construction sector will continue to exhibit spectacular growth till 2020. The Indian IT industry will unleash a major technology initiative with e-governance in the forefront.
                        Energy (Oil, Gas, Coal & Power), infrastructure, telecom, retail, project engineering, biomedical engineering, mechatronics, manufacturing, infrastructure, retail, banking, finance, insurance, management, education, research, hospitality, travel and holistic therapy will become the potential career sectors during 2015. In the Global engineering services outsourcing market, India’s share will increase from 16% to 25% by 2020. Engineering sector will become the biggest sector after IT and ITeS in the country.  By 2015 Indian Pharmaceutical industry will reach 20Billion US$ turnover. There is good potential for generic drug market in the country. Indian Pharma industry employs quality manpower and excels from low cost of production, world class technology and research. India is the third largest country in Telecom sector globally after China and USA. Country’s mobile subscribers will reach 6 % of the world market by 2015.Rural penetration coupled with 4G technology and competition will facilitate better career prospects in this sector. By 2016 number of Smartphone users will increase up to 16.5 Crores and the country will become the world’s second Smartphone user after China. By 2020 number of Smartphone users in the country will reach 20 Crores.
 
Banking, Finance and Insurance sector will exhibit robust growth during 2015.Public sector banks are trying to open overseas markets. Some of the potential areas are Asset management, Broking, Investment and Insurance. All Public and private sector banks require skilled professionals in the areas of finance, banking, marketing and HRD management. Banking, financial services and insurance and IT-enabled services are not expecting a major increase during the first two quarters. Currently India has 1.82 lakhs ATMs in the country. When compared to world average it is less than the required number. Current ATM availability is 11.21 per lakh. It is 118.6 and 59.93 in Brazil and South Africa respectively. By 2020 there will be 20 ATMS for every lakh people in India. It will facilitate Technology and innovation sectors in the country.
In the Globalised era education, training and Consultancy are some of the key sectors which can drive more employment in the country. Technology enabled learning will exhibit spectacular growth in the country. Hospitality, Tourism and Travel will become one of the fastest growing segments in the World.
 
Fastest growing jobs projected up to 2018 by US Bureau for labor statistics in United States are Biomedical engineers, Network systems and data communication analysts, financial examiners, medical scientists except epidemiologists, Physician assistants, Biochemists and biophysicists, Veterinarians, Software engineers, applications, system software, food technologists. Biomedical engineers, Petroleum engineers and Environmental engineers.   
         More than 82% of Indian employers prefer job portals as their preferred hiring channel. They also rely on social networking sites. With regard to demand for talent, there will be an increase in demand at the middle management level across all sectors. A steady volume of recruitment at graduate level is also expected in the coming years. Campus recruitment will improve in the coming years. Specialist skill sets, currently limited to the existing talent pool are also likely to be in demand. IT and software industry will hire more of management graduates than other domains. Industries are looking for hands-on people.             Overall job readiness among Indian job market entrants will increase to 43 percent from the current 34%.
Overseas education
              Indian students travel abroad to study in large numbers, and they have become an important source of international enrolment diversity, research strength and revenue for institutions of higher education across the world, and especially so in countries where English is the national language. The number of Indian students going overseas to study rose a stunning 256% – from 53,266 to 189,629  during the last decade, according to a study called “Indian student mobility to selected European countries: An overview” by researchers at one of India’s top business schools, the Indian Institute of Management–Bangalore. Currently, Indians are mostly looking US and Canada as study abroad destinations, but well-communicated advantages in the form of scholarships, visa policies, and opportunities to work during and after degree-completion could easily move them to consider other options in North America, Canada, Australia and Europe (Germany, France, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, and Ireland). Course-wise choice of Indian students is 13.2% for Undergraduate and 56.4% Graduate programmes. It is around 28.8% for optional Practical Training.
 
         Nanotechnology, Nuclear engineering, Robotics, Vehicle Engineering, Chemical technology, food technology, agroenergetics, agriculture mechanical engineering, seaport engineering, Environmental Engineering, Fashion engineering, interaction design and technologies, social media,web technologies and  medicinal chemistry are emerging as the potential sectors abroad.
 
Agriculture and allied sectors
              The joint report by Food and Agriculture Organisation in Rome and the Paris based organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) of 34 leading world economies contained price and production forecasts to 2023 revealed that world meat production will have gone up by 58 million tonnes with developing countries making up 80 percent of increase. The biggest gains will be for poultry-50 percent of the total- and pork at 30 percent. Of the eight Millennium Development Goals set by United Nations, the first relates to eradicating poverty and extreme hunger, halving hunger by 2015. World’s existing cropland could feed at least 3 billion extra people if it were used more efficiently, showing that the large increases in population expected in the next three decades need not results in widespread hunger. Most forecasts suggest that world population will increase from 7 billion to 9 billion by 2050.
                 In India, dairying is predominantly unorganised and the sector is dependent on rural households for supplies; over 70 million of 147 million households in India depend on dairy for their livelihood. Though India ranks marginally higher than many of the South Asian neighbours in the 2014 UNDP Human Development Reports, the country has fallen behind most of its immediate neighbours on key health and quality of life indicators. Moreover India has worst gender inequality in the region sharing 127th position with Pakistan. Among SAARC countries Indians are least satisfied with standard of living (47per cent).
Integration of Agriculture sector with industry to implement 5F formula — Farm to Fibre, Fibre to Fabric, Fabric to Fashion, Fabric to Foreign will create more employment for agri, Veterinary science, soil science, food processing and allied graduates in the country.
Another area of focus is increasing the expenditure on vocational education and skill development. Design, innovation and growth are interconnected. To sustain and growth in the manufacturing sector distinct focus on indigenous manufacturing is required. Growth in Indigenous manufacturing will lead to organic growth in the manufacturing sector. The future growth prospects of the Indian economy linger primarily on the infrastructure investment and timely execution of the projects. 
 The adoption of public-private partnership (PPP) model in the education sector could go a long way in establishing success and creating a sustainable momentum in long-term. While the government’s role could be that of funding the projects, it is the execution ability of the private sector which needs to be banked upon for the ultimate delivery of the model.
Make in India
Recent initiative to promote ‘Make in India’ concept will facilitate both industrial and services sectors. Micro, Small and medium enterprises (MSME) will be largely benefited through this decision. As a sequel to globalisation and Free trade agreement services sector supersedes all other sectors. It creates more than 57 percent employment than the basic agricultural and middle industrial sectors. ‘Make in India’ will really benefit the manufacturing sector in the country. It will facilitate foreign direct investment in retail sector rather than inflow of FMCG from abroad.
Strengthening of MSME will create more employment opportunities in the country. It will really benefit the engineering students. Vocational and skill development programmes will also acquire momentum in the country. Since the manufacturing will be taking place within the country the industrial growth will be enormous. Even during the economic recession MSME had shown 10 percent growth and its contribution to GDP of the country was significant.
Within the services sector Management, banking, finance and insurance sector will exhibit spectacular growth in the country. The forecast for 2020 was 22 lakh employment opportunities. Automobile, electronics, IT, Electrical, construction, IT, ITeS, Mechanical, Bio medical and agribusiness sectors will exhibit quantum jump in career market. Nanotechnology, Nuclear engineering, Robotics, Vehicle Engineering, Chemical technology, food technology, agro energetics, agriculture mechanical engineering, seaport engineering, Environmental Engineering, Fashion engineering, interior design and technologies, social media and web technologies, medicinal chemistry, etc will become the potential areas which can create more employment in the country.By 2015 number of internet users in India will increase from 120 million to 350 million users and the country will move from third to second largest internet user base in the world. By 2015 number of internet users will become 2.6-2.9 Billion; of which 50 percent population will be from developing countries. Globally nearly 20 percent of the user’s access internet on wireless technologies whereas in India it is around 55 percent. Indian internet economy is 1.6-2 times bigger than education, health, hospitality or utility sectors. ‘Make in India’ will make the students entrepreneurs rather than employees. Entrepreneurship in MSME and industrial sectors will creates more than 10 lakh employment opportunities in the country by 2020.
Innovation and Entrepreneurship
             India needs innovation in the Science and Technology sector to reach the productivity frontier and to use the best practices for production. The desire for innovation in India has been driven by search for low cost solutions to public problems. Innovation is the application of new ideas to solve problems with resultant benefits to different stakeholders. Through innovation incubation, students can become employers rather than employees. India needs to create 1.5 crore jobs per year for the next ten years to provide employment to youngsters. In this juncture accelerating entrepreneurship and creating business are crucial for massive employment generation. Government of India is promoting start ups to scale up start-up ecosystem in the country. There are nearly 200 Government sponsored incubators in India sponsored by educational institutions. These incubation centres will convert the innovations in to viable products. Opportunity for start-ups was unparalled especially in the IT sector because cloud and mobile technologies have reduced the cost of doing business.
India’s premier IT and software services trade association NASSCOM has opened its first co-working facility called Start-up Warehouse for tech start-ups and the entrepreneur community in Bangalore. Innovation in start-up ecosystem depends on ideas, validation process and good partner relationship. Major steps in this process are laying the foundation, creating a challenge book, building participation, experimentation with cost, speedy implementation, building innovation sand box and putting a margin of safety.
Employability
Recently education and career sectors across the globe are witnessing stiff competition. Education sector is expanding across the globe with umpteen numbers of courses and educational institutions. Employability is emerging as one of the cardinals of choosing the courses. Some of the students may have good academic merit but their employability skill may be poor. Government of India established National skill Development Corporation to augment skill development programmes. Communication, English proficiency, motivation and leadership skills, computer proficiency and general awareness are the basic skills required for any profession. New customized management programmes are emerging in the country. Any graduate can join for customized management programmes based on his aptitude. Interest, attitude, aptitude and commitment are essential for becoming a good manager. Analysis of the jobs in the banking, finance and insurance sectors reveals that during the last decade more than 40 percent of the candidates selected were from B schools or Management institutes.
(Dr.T.P.Sethumadhavan, Director, Entrepreneurship, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Pookode, Wayanad. E mail- tpsethu2000@gmail.com)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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